Fact Sheets - Australia

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Official Name Commonwealth of Australia
Geographical location (Latitude) 10° 41’ South and 43° 39’ South
(Longitude) 113° 09’ East and 153° 39’ East
Area 7.7 million sq.km (coastline 25,760 km)
Climate
  • Summer from December to February
  • Autumn from March to May
  • Winter from June to August
  • Spring from September to November
Conditions vary depending on location
Population 23.4 million (December. 2013)
Territories
  • Australian Capital Territory (385,996)
  • Northern Territory (245,079)
States:
    New South Wales (7.5 mn)
  • Victoria (5.8 mn)
  • Queensland (4.7 mn)
  • Western Australia (2.5 mn)
  • South Australia (1.6 mn)
  • Tasmania (0.51 mn)
Federal Capital Canberra (385,996)
Other Major Cities
  • Sydney (4.8 mn)
  • Melbourne (4.4 mn)
  • Brisbane (2.3 mn)
  • Perth (2.0 mn)
  • Adelaide (1.3 mn)
  • Hobart (219,547)
  • Darwin (135,672)
Religion
  • Christianity (13.0 million)
  • Buddhism (0.68 million)
  • Islam (0.44 million)
  • Hinduism (0.153 million)
  • Judaism (0.092 million)
  • other religion groups include Australian Aboriginal traditional religions, Sikhism etc.
Ethnic groups Australia is a country of migrants; around 45% were either born overseas; have a parent who was born overseas. There are over 200 migrant nationalities, among whom are predominantly English, Irish, New Zealander, Italian, Croatian, Serbian, Vietnamese, Greek, Chinese, Indian (Caucasian 92%; Asian 7%; Aboriginal and others 1%)
Time difference
  • NSW, Queensland, ACT, Victoria and Tasmania: IST + 4½ hours
  • South Australia and Northern Territory: IST + 4 hours
  • Western Australia: IST + 2½ hours
  • NSW, VIC, SA, ACT, TAS have Daylight Saving
  • Time from October to March.

Political

Polity Federal parliament democracy, based on the constitution of 1901, with Queen as head of State. The Government is headed by a Prime Minister in Cabinet. The Parliament is bicameral: the 150-member House of Representatives (the lower house) is directly elected by a preferential voting system for a three-year term; and the Senate (the upper house) the 76 Senators (twelve from each of the six States and two from each of the Territories) directly elected by proportional representation for six-year terms, with one-half of Senate members retiring every three years, usually to coincide with elections for the House of Representatives. The Senate may not initiate or amend money bills.
State legislatures Five of the six states have bicameral legislatures; that of Queensland is unicameral
Electoral system Compulsory universal direct suffrage over the age of 18
National government A cabinet, presided over by the Prime Minister, is appointed by the Governor-General on the basis of party strength in the House of Representatives. A Liberal/National Coalition government is in power after securing an emphatic victory in the recent federal elections.
Major political parties The Liberal Party, Australian Labor Party (ALP), the National Party, the Greens.
Head of State Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia represented by the Governor General.
Governor General HE General the Hon. Sir Peter Cosgrove AK MC (Retd)
Prime Minister Mr. Malcolm Turnbull, MP
Foreign Minister The Hon. Julie Bishop, MP
Leader of Opposition The Hon. Bill Shorten, MP
Party position Total 150
House of Representatives
  • Liberal* : 58
  • Liberal National Party* : 22
  • Nationals* : 9
  • Country Liberal Party* : 1
  • ALP : 54
  • Independents : 3
  • Greens : 1
  • KAP : 1
  • Palmer United Party : 1
*(Liberal, Liberal National Party, Nationals & CLP are in a coalition with 90 seats)
Senate
  • Total : 76
  • Liberal* : 23
  • Nationals/ Country Liberal Party*: 4
  • Liberal National Party* : 6
  • ALP : 26
  • Greens : 9
  • Palmer United Party : 3
  • Democratic Labor Party : 1
  • Australian Motor Enthusiasts: 1
  • Family First Party : 1
  • Liberal Democratic Party : 1
  • Independent : 1
*(Liberal, National and Liberal National Party are in a coalition with 33 seats)

Economic

Composition of GDP The Australian economy is based overwhelmingly on services, which account for 80.1% of GDP The mining sector accounts for 7.6%;manufacturing for 11%; agriculture, forestry and fishery for 2.3%.
Financial Year July 1 - June 30
GDP (current prices) US$ 1,482.5 billion; (A$ 1,635.95 bn.) (2013-14)
GDP Per Capita US$ 62,822 (A$69,325) (2013-14)
GDP Growth 2.80% (2013-14)
Foreign Exchange Reserves US$59.55 bn. (A$65.71 bn.) (December 2014)
Main natural resources Coal, Gold, Iron Ore, Bauxite, Alumina, Uranium, Lead, Zinc, Copper, Nickel, Natural Gas.
Principal crops Wheat, Barley, Oats, Oilseeds
Currency A$ 1= US$0.9062 / Rs.55.15 (September 2014)
Total Merchandise Trade(A$bn) 502.5 (Exports:261.96;Imports:240.54) (2013-14)

AUSTRALIA’S PRINCIPAL TRADING PARTNERS (2013-14, Australian$), (Goods and Services)

Country Total Trade Rank Exports Rank Imports Rank
China $159.71 bn. 1st $107.57 bn. 1st $52.13 bn. 1st
Japan $72.17 bn. 2nd $51.02 bn. 2nd $21.14 bn. 3rd
USA $58.20 bn. 3rd $17.03 bn. 4th $41.17 bn. 2nd
Republic of Korea $34.58 bn. 4th $22.52 bn. 3rd $12.05 bn. 9th
Singapore $29.51 bn. 5th $10.94 bn. 6th $18.56 bn. 4th
New Zealand $22.69 bn. 6th $11.54 bn. 5th $11.15 bn. 10th
United Kingdom $20.28 bn. 7th $07.85 bn. 9th $12.43 bn. 8th
Malaysia $19.94 bn. 8th $07.23 bn. 10th $12.70 bn. 7th
Thailand $18.83 bn. 9th $05.60 bn. 12th $13.23 bn. 6th
Germany $16.82 bn. 10th $02.92 bn. 19th $13.90 bn. 5th
Indonesia $15.96 bn. 11th $06.90 bn. 11th $09.05 bn. 11th
India $14.76 bn. 12th $10.45 bn. 7th $04.31 bn. 20th
Outward Investment (A$mn.) 1,632,201 (July 2014)
Inward Investment (A$mn.) 2,461,998 (July 2014)
Leading Destination countries U.S.A ($410.04 bn/32.7%) U.K. ($192.3bn/15.3%)
New Zealand ($73.9 bn/5.8%) Japan($29.1bn/2.3%)Netherlands($24.54bn/1.9%)
Leading Investing countries U.S.A ($122.4 bn/24.1%) U.K. ($69.7bn/13.7%)
Japan ($52.3bn/10.3%) Netherlands ($32.9bn/6.5%) Switzerland ($23.0/4.5)

India Australia Bilateral Trade 2013-14*

Bilateral trade in goods A$ 11.21 bn. (US$10.16 bn.) (2013-14)*
India’s Exports A$ 2.85 bn. (US$2.58 bn.) (2013-14)*
India’s Imports A$ 8.36 bn. (US$7.58 bn.) (2013-14)*
Main exports Passenger Motor Vehicles, Pearls & gems, Medicaments (including veterinary), Refined Petroleum and Jewellery.
Main imports Coal, Copper ores and concentrates, Gold, Vegetables, and Wool & other animal hair.
Bilateral trade in services A$ 3.54 bn. (US$ 3.21 bn.) (2013-14)
India’s Service Exports A$ 1.45 bn. (US$ 1.31 bn.) (2013-14)
India’s Service Imports A$ 2.09 bn. (US$ 1.89 bn.) (2013-14)
Australia’s main export destinations China, Japan, Republic of Korea, U.S.A, India.
Australia’s main import sources China, USA, Japan, Singapore, Germany.

India – Australia Trade in Goods: 2006 - 2011 (All Figures In A$)

Year 2008 - 09 2009 - 10 2010 – 11 2011 - 12 2012 - 13 2013 - 14
Total trade $17.53 bn. $18.02 bn. $17.84 bn. $15.61 bn. $11.91 bn. $11.21 bn.
India’s Exports $2.11 bn. $1.84 bn. $2.08 bn. $2.49 bn. $2.4 bn. $2.85 bn.
India’s Imports $15.42 bn. $16.17 bn. $15.76 bn. $13.11 bn. $9.51 bn. $8.36 bn.

* financial year 01 July – 30 June

India’s exports of goods and services to Australia have increased by 18.45% in 2013-14 while imports from Australia have decreased by 21.76% during the same period.

Main Australian service exports are Education; education – related travel; tourism.

Main Indian service exports are Professional, technical and other business services; tourism.

December 2014

* Financial Year 1 July 2013 – 30 June 2014

Source: ABS, DFAT, R.B.A

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